Unlearning what we have Learnt
To Learn what we ought to Learn
TO PROTECT AND PROGRESS OUR PEOPLES
Veteran advocates of the Orange Union
Sir Ahmadu Bello
We must aim at a looser structure for Nigeria while preserving its general pattern – a structure which would give the regions the greatest possible freedom of movement and action; a structure which would reduce the power of the Centre to the absolute minimum and yet retain sufficient national unity for practical and international purposes.
Chief Obafemi Awolowo
autobiography of Chief Obafemi Awolowo
“Each group however small, is entitled to the same treatment as any other group however large. Opportunities must be afforded to each to evolve its own to evolve its own peculiar political institution. Each group must be autonomous in regard to its internal affairs . . . In dividing Nigeria into regions, it is therefore necessary to group together only people who, through affinity or general experience are known to be capable of working together harmoniously. The guiding principles in dividing the country into regions must therefore be: ethnic classification, cultural affinity, common problems and perhaps administrative convenience.”
The Orange Union: a New Road to the Promised Land for Nigerians
A Fatherland Group Initiative
Why the ‘Orange’?
The civilisational concept of ‘the Orange Union’ is inspired by Nature’s gift to mankind by way of the orange citrus fruit. As with the fruit, it is a concept whereby humanity enjoys the peaceful harmony of a union within which the separate segments are distinctly and uniquely covered by a soft internal border, while the shared cover is the much firmer peeling acting as the external border to the rest of the world.
In the Orange Union proposed for Nigeria, each segment represents a unique, historic, ethnic group/nation, maintaining its fullness of identity, self-determination and integrity, with the added benefit of a jointly negotiated common ground of interest deemed as mutually nourishing and protective.
Why a New Road?
The old road has demonstrably failed. That road, of political union towards ‘One Nigeria’, was explained by one of its principal architects, Sir Peter Smithers (Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Minister of State and the Secretary of State in the Colonial Office from 1952-59 in the run up to Nigeria’s independence. He was also the Secretary General to the Council of Europe from 1964-1969) as follows:
Sir, During the negotiations for the independence of Nigeria the view of the Secretary of State at that time, with which I agreed, was that in Nigeria we should attempt to put together a large and powerful state with ample material resources, which would play a leading part in the affairs of the continent and the world. This was attractive but it involved forcing several different ethnic and cultural groups into a single political structure.
The negotiations were complex and very difficult, the chief problem as I remember relating, significantly, to the control of the police and the military.
In the retrospect of 40 years it is clear that this was a grave mistake which has cost many lives and will probably continue to do so. It would have been better to establish several smaller states in a free-trade area.
In exculpation it must be said that we did not then have the examples of the collapse of Yugoslavia and of the Soviet Union before our eyes. It should now be clear for all but the wilfully blind to see that it is extremely dangerous to force diverse racial and social entities into a single rigid structure such as that which is being built upon the foundation of the Maastricht treaty. Recent history suggests that it would be best to complete the development of the Common Market and to call a halt to political integration in Europe.
Times, July 15, 1998
This old road, passing through successive territorial amalgamations, from 1900, and via a variety of governance models, since 1946, – ranging from limited franchise to universal franchise, Parliamentary to Presidential, interspersed with periods of military rule and civil war – entailed squeezing the more than 371 pre-existing ethnic groups and nations into becoming ‘one people’, in a winner-takes-all political arrangement.
This exercise in futility reached its nadir with the 2023 General Elections, with allegations of unprecedented levels of electoral malpractice including, most especially, by the Independent National Electoral Commission after spectacular assurances of full transparency in the vote counting process. The new confident taunt of the victors for the losers, in the win-at-all-costs game, is “Go-to-court”.
Why still have a Union at all?
The evidence suggests that most Nigerians want to stay together in some form of union provided it can work in their interests. What they clearly do not want is a union that is held together by force of arms only, with its attendant high cost in human lives and aspirations. Simply put, like all civilised people, they want a consensual union that is held together by shared interests.
The objective of the Orange Union is to ensure the full self-determination of each ethnic nation whilst providing a platform for joint collaborations on equitable terms and magnifying the international prospects of the collective.
To this end, each ethnic nation or a small collective of ethnic nations, will be a self-governing polity that will manage its own affairs according to a self-determined local constitution derived from the history, ancestry, consensus and future prospects of the citizens within that given polity.
This recognizes the fact that an agreement arranged at the closest, and smallest possible, level of similarity ensures the strongest possible bond for common progress. The propensity for disagreement between naturally similar characters is far less than that of distant characters.
The homogeneity factor within the same ethnic nation entails the longest possible element of co-existence by way of shared ancestry, history, language, culture, traditions, lifestyle, mentality, territory, exposure and posterity. This homogeneity factor increases the basis for effective and smooth community involvement in realistic governance activities. This is the safest and most conflict-free model which allows even the smaller communities within the same ethnic nation a significant degree of autonomy.
Accordingly, each polity will have its own ancestral borders, governance structure, judicial system, official language, education system, healthcare system, resource management, internal autonomous regions, military defence structure, police service, finance institutions etc.
How will the Orange Union work internally?
The Orange Union model brings responsibility home to each community in the conviction that a community that cannot cater for itself is incapable of offering care or governance to other near or distant communities. It becomes very obvious that a representative from such an incapable community is unlikely to preside efficiently over the affairs of other communities. Simply put, it is difficult to tidy up other people’s houses when your own house is completely untidy. Citizens of member States of the “Orange Union” can reside, travel or work across the territories of the “Orange Union” based on mutually arranged diplomatic frameworks for security, trade and citizenship.
How will the Orange Union work externally?
The Orange Union restores our civilisation, as nearly as possible, to the way we were before the Berlin Conference of 1884-85. It does so in a way that is simultaneously consonant with the Article 2(4) of the UN Charter principle of the territorial integrity of States and the Article 1(2) principle of the right of self-determination of colonial peoples.
Fatherland Group (FG) is a global network of forward-thinking Nigerians armed with a new understanding of their past, their present and their future.
For more information about the Orange Union and Fatherland Group contact:
The Orange Union – A Fatherland Group Initiative
Across the world and over many millennia, peoples have lived, travelled and shared their experiences as much as they found it practicable. Many lessons have been learnt but some lessons are still lingering. The concept of the Orange Union has its roots in ancient Africa and has been observed even in recent centuries in pre-colonial Africa but it has found its way in recent decades to post world war Europe. Interestingly, a historical axis does exist from Africa, colonialism, world wars and Europe via which a keen observer will notice that the civilization concept of the Orange Union was plucked from Africa and transplanted into Europe.
Just like the actual citrus fruit called Orange, the Orange Union is not just a concept of civilization but a concept of nature whereby humanity enjoys the peaceful harmony of a union within which the completely separate segments are distinctly and uniquely covered by a soft border while the collective cover is the much firmer peeling acting as the external border to the rest of the world. Each distinctive comfortable segment represents a unique ethnic nation maintaining its fullness of identity, self-determination and integrity with the added benefit of a jointly negotiated common ground of interest deemed as mutually beneficial and protective.
As regards the historical axis by which this concept of civilization was plucked from Africa and transplanted in Europe, it does not take a genius to notice the parallel between the ethnic configurations of polities and the resultant volatility in Europe when compared to the ethnic self-determination with the resultant tranquility in Africa about five hundred years ago. It can be easily said that Europe brought its chaotic civilization to Africa in exchange for Africa’s harmonious civilization so that the level of acrimony dwindled in Europe by way of increasing ethnic self-determination but the reverse became the case in Africa by means of colonial configuration, experimentation and cancellation of ethnic self-determination. In fact, the colonial creation of pseudo-countries throughout Africa as plotted at the Berlin Conference of 1885 remains the biggest blow to Africa’s focused development. This means that Africans spend more time learning a colonial language in order to communicate with fellow Africans in their pseudo-countries to no avail when they could save a lifetime by simply communicating in their mother tongue within their ancestral countries for a focused development. So the African Union becomes less effective by virtue of a colonial order while the European Union becomes more effective by virtue of a concept of African civilization in such dastardly irony.
The orientation of the natural will is like a river flowing in its natural trajectory. There is little if any resistance to achieving easy consensus due to the minimal barriers within a homogenous polity with the same ancestry, language, mentality, culture, history, geography and outlook. The common validity of the ethnic mainstay combines the unique contribution of that ethnic nation as a special branch of humanity and the moral prerogative to preserve that unique contribution into the farthest future. While a pseudo-country whether engineered by colonialism or political experimentations seems to frequently harbour dangerous frictions, by contrast an ethnic nation is the gold standard for neighbourly stability. In this regard the geopolitical history of recent Scandinavia or pre-colonial Sub Saharan Africa is a useful example.
A Piece Of Land or A Peace Of The Land
There is a reason why failures and instability become endemic in any land. Genuine ownership is a great incentive for long-term planning, sustained development, meticulous investment and wholesome husbandry. In sharp contrast, a covetous indulgence in other people’s land undermines the prospect of peace by applying frantic methods aimed at specific exploitations but void of any mutual goodwill. For the first settlers in any indigenous lands, the peace of the land was based on the original ancestral ownership and consensus. Other further arrivals require the permission of the ancestral consensus in order to maintain the peace of the land as strangers protected by the indigenous hosts. If the strangers contravene the ancestral consensus then the peace of the land is disrupted as any piece of land taken by or handed over to strangers without the peaceful ancestral consensus spells colonization and invasion. All forms of non-indigenous colonization of local territory under any guise must be reversed sooner than later. The peace of the land is crucial for sustained development. This principle must be enshrined in all future constitutions ideally as a mandatory security requirement.
Ancestral or Colonial Order?
Most people are unaware of the ancestral order of our ethnic nations through recent millennia and centuries preceding the slavery and colonial incursions. Our lack of research into our past is the main source of confusion for some of us who are confounded with the question of what to expect as our destiny. It is only fair to say that history and destiny frequently share a scientifically established connectivity. One can only add that the stable bridge between the two is the ethnic identity. The loss or cancellation of one’s identity leaves the individual vulnerable to an unknown destiny where the individual floats on the rivers of foreign identities until one finds an anchor in the research of one’s own original or closest possible identity. Despite certain few misgivings, the ancestral order for the majority of Africans was that of very credible civilizations with profound constitutional settlement which ensured social stability and multiple cycles of jubilees and celebrations. Regardless of any cynical misrepresentations of ancient and pre-colonial Africa, for the most part these were independent ethnic communities, kingdoms and nations with a long track experience of substantial peace and harmony. One of the most important element of stability for these nations was the principle of “abominations” which was deemed as an absolute consensus to avoid complete extinction of the community. This principle held the entire community in such strong cohesion guaranteed in most cases by a balanced welfare culture that became an incentive for active participation by all and sundry. Another prominent principle was the “constant educational culture” which meant that citizens had established a strong knowledge of their culture, norms and traditions from a very young age so that community consensus was in fact never a problem but easily achieved. By contrast the colonial order was not just a criminal invasion and a rude shock to the local system but a template and recipe for constant disruption of opportunity for local consensus as well as the grafting in of permanent strife by colonial engineering. This did not only mean the embracing of foreign cultures but the confusion of priorities to such an extent that there was a significant dislocation of prospects and translocation of opportunities leading to a state of stunned development. The advent of neo-colonialism as a result of colonial arrangements only compounded the chaos of political destitution in many polities with colonial configurations. Without doubt the Berlin Conference concluded in 1885 ensured the disruption of ethnic stability and the suspension of easy local consensus by deploying the neo-colonial juxtapositions which progressively perpetuated discord and proxy conflicts. The subsequent creation of States in Nigeria was a part of a neo-colonial project and followed a similar pattern as the 1885 Berlin Conference.
The Orange Union Has No Disadvantages
The objective of the Orange Union is to ensure the full self-determination of each ethnic nation, provide a platform for joint collaborations on equitable terms and magnify the international prospects of the collective. This means that each ethnic nation or a small collective of ethnic nations is a self-governing polity and will manage its own affairs according to a self-determined local constitution derived from the history, ancestry, consensus and future prospects of the citizens within that given polity. This recognizes the fact that an agreement arranged at the closest and smallest possible level of similarity ensures the strongest possible bond for common progress. The tendency to disagree between naturally similar characters is far less than the tendency of distant characters to disagree. The homogeneity factor within the same ethnic nation entails the longest possible element of co-existence by way of shared ancestry, history, language, culture, traditions, lifestyle, mentality, territory, exposure and posterity. This homogeneity factor increases the basis for effective and smooth community involvement in realistic governance activities. This is the safest and most conflict-free model which allows even the smaller communities within the same ethnic nation a significant degree of autonomy. So, each polity has its own ancestral borders, governance structure, judicial system, official language, education system, healthcare system, resource management, internal autonomous regions, military defence structure, police service, finance institutions etc. The Orange Union model brings responsibility home to each community because a community that cannot cater for itself is incapable of offering care or governance to other near or distant communities. It becomes very obvious that a representative from such an incapable community is unlikely to preside efficiently over the affairs of other communities. Simply put, it is difficult to tidy up other people’s houses when your own house is completely untidy. Citizens of member States of the “Orange Union” can reside, travel or work across the territories of the “Orange Union” based on mutually arranged diplomatic frameworks for security, trade and citizenship. A federation of ethnic subgroups within each ethnic nation as autonomous regions, districts, towns or kingdoms is strongly recommended as an attribute of the Orange Union principle. Migration terms to be decided locally and ensuring the dignity and safety of the different categories of migrants as befitting the well-known hospitality of African cultures.
While each ethnic nation can join the Union system by providing their indigenes the right to opt in by referendum, a member nation must avoid tarnishing the image and reputation of the Union by ensuring decent welfare and safe conditions for all the citizens within its territory. An initial grace period of five years is allowed to achieve a decent basic standard of living for all the citizens of that nation. If deprivation, poverty or crisis on a large scale affects a residential or industrial area involving a population a tenth of the size of a suburb, that will equate to tarnishing the image and reputation of the entire Union. Such a situation makes the membership of such a nation untenable in the Union and an exit order will automatically apply if the situation is not fully rectified within a period of six months. A nation can tender a notice of exit if a local referendum confirms such intent of the citizens. Such exit becomes effective after a six month period from the notice of exit. For new memberships to the Union, a notice of entry following local referenda is required but an assessment period of four years is the minimum time before acceptance or rejection is confirmed.
A Common Currency will facilitate trade within the Union and will be regulated by the proposed Joint Committee for Trade. The quota provided for each nation will reflect the trade volume and only specific amounts will be provided to citizens depending on the expected activity to ease cross-border travels. The Joint Committee for Trade will have a dedicated Common Currency Reserve unit which regulates how the local Central Banks maintain the correct application of the Common Currency rules for the purpose of trade and travel. Local currency will be a matter for the local affairs as determined by the various local constitutions.
The motto for the Orange Union is “Excellence and Understanding” and as such each member nation must strive to bring its citizens and representatives to be cultured by this motto.
Proposed Joint Commission
This is the collective body of all the Joint Committees Secretaries General chaired by the President of the Joint Commission. This office of President is the representative figurehead of all the member States of the Orange Union for a period of two years. The Secretary of the Joint Commission is the Foreign Affairs Secretary and the deputy to the President of the Joint Commission for a period of two years. The Under Secretary of the Joint Commission is the direct deputy of the Secretary of the Joint Commission for a period of two years. The Joint Commission sessions would ideally be fortnightly. The President of the Joint Commission will meet a mandatory criteria of eligibility but will be appointed by a lot system and the office shall be rotated so that no ethnic nation holds that office for a second time until all other ethnic nations have held that office for the first time. Any ethnic nation or member State that holds the office will be excluded from the lot system until each and every other member State has held the office. In the event of demise or resignation or impeachment of the office holder, a person recommended by their local head of government, fulfilling the mandatory criteria of eligibility from the same ethnic nation or member State will be vetted by each Joint Committee as suitable replacement if at least four hundred members of each Joint Committee vote in favour of the eligible candidate. If this is not achieved the seven Secretaries General of the Joint Committees will need a majority vote favourable to the candidate within the subsequent forty-eight hours. If this is not achieved, then six independent candidates from that same ethnic nation or member State will campaign only locally for a snap election for one candidate to ascend the prestigious office of the Joint Commission. This condition will apply to the office of the Secretary of the Joint Commission as well as the office of the Under Secretary of the Joint Commission.
Proposed Joint Committees
There are seven Joint Committees working on the mutual affairs of Migration, Trade, Transport, Sports, International Relations, Security and Arbitration. Each Joint Committee is an official unit comprising of two members from each ethnic nation or member State. The two members may be recommended by their respective governments or elected by public votes in their respective member States but only after their eligibility has been confirmed according to the well-established requirements of the respective Joint Committee. The office of Joint Committee member will be held for four years if there are no breach of terms of office. Each Joint Committee is headed by a Secretary General who is a professional with relevant experience to the affairs of that Joint Committee. A Joint Committee Secretary General will be an independent non-partisan candidate who must fulfil the eligibility criteria for that office with a four-year term of office. All seven Secretaries General must be from seven separate ethnic nations or member States at any given time and these ethnic nations or member States will be excluded from holding such an office until all other ethnic nations or member States have held these offices. A lot system will select the seven ethnic nations or member States whose candidate will hold the office of Joint Committee Secretary General for the four-year term. Each Joint Committee Secretary General will appoint an Associate fulfilling the criteria of office as temporary replacement for a maximum period of six weeks. For the purpose of permanent replacement, six fully eligible candidates from the same ethnic nation or member State will campaign in a snap election within their local polity with one candidate emerging within twenty eight days to complete the remainder of office term as the Secretary General of the Joint Committee.
The Orange concept is key to opening our minds.
We were brainwashed, punished and made ashamed of our indigenous identities, we were lumped together geographically and then divided against one another politically, we were lured away from multicultural identities and forced to a foreign “superior” system that required us to be integrated into European culture called civilisation to qualify for jobs but only just enough to be used as servants to perform the menial labour and basic tasks for the Oyinbo massas.
As soon as we started rising above that status and became “educated” we were herded into the “commonwealth” deception, but you still had to sweat to get a visa for higher training in the U.K. Today the oppression continues with Ms Braverman tightening the noose around the necks of those who dare to seek a way out of the devastation that Africa has been made into.
The way our kids begin to learn they are black inferior humans is because they are shamed and physically, mentally and socially barred from entry to areas where good white people’s kids play.
Identity is key. We must learn and appreciate Self identity and discard this fake White identity.
The confusion of who and what we are has to stop.
The Orange concept is key to opening our minds to our amazing history, culture, diversity and to start to take pride in our millions of years of ancestry.
A Sense of Belonging and the Sense of Community
In the natural African civilization there is a tested and tried consensus in the community. Such consensus that has survived multiple and countless generations is not only a stable incentive for progress but a deterrent to aberrational vice. The principles of governance and communal harmony are rooted at every level of the society. There is virtually little to no discrepancy in the outlook of the nation whether at individual or public level.
With this sort of pre-colonial setting the outcomes are frequently unanimous and the gears of progress are swiftly changed according to the nature of the challenges facing that community.
However, in an experimental society the regular outcomes are unpredictable and the nuances of incoherence can spark alarming conflicts. It requires a detailed studying of the various components of the experiment in order to find a brittle common ground. The element of trust has a very low threshold for the boiling point and therefore disappears at the slightest incongruence. This may be due to innate incompatibilities but it could be more a matter of natural divergence. Whatever the case may be, it should not be a perpetual experimentation if the recurring outcomes bear the mark of failure in a consistent trajectory.
With the above preamble in mind the mirror in the sun converges the spotlight on the colonial experiment in West Africa known as “Nigeria.” This giant colonial experiment is still perplexing every onlooker in the way it combines endowment with persistent regression as the expanding rot of an apple. It is almost a mystical puzzle when diction speaks louder than action for far too long. The very complexity of its ethnic civilizational mosaicism is a recipe for dissatisfaction to say the least but the constant denial of this complexity itself inadvertently cancels the sense of belonging for an unknown but sharply increasing percentage of the conglomerate. This absent sense of belonging is further exacerbated by a history littered with injustices that if anything have a propensity for recurrence on a regular basis. Obviously vain utterances will not yield trust when the colonial matrix cannot guarantee any safe haven even in the indigenous cradles. This particular reality exponentially heightens anxiety, paranoia and every other disorder that makes our folks look like peoples cursed even before the cock crows at dawn. The level of desperation for many is such that they feel doomed from the very moment of waking up.
So why is our collective history evading the vast majority of our peoples? The deliberate omission of robust local history in the colonial education being offered from kindergarten was the vehicle of brainwashing that prolonged the collective suffering. Going by the colonial trajectory some ethnic nations will never see their fellow indigene become head of State ever as the arithmetical odds are forever stacked against them. How does this fact promote trust or a sense of belonging? If it doesn’t, then it will certainly feed the sense of discord, distrust, selfishness and corruption. The colonial experiment created a “confunity” by confusing our destiny but it never promoted a community as we were lied to.
So it turns out that our peoples do not lack intelligence but they lack a sense of belonging given the colonial configuration that denies their true voice, identity, language, culture, hopes and self-determination.
We did not colonize ourselves and we certainly must not colonize ourselves on behalf of the colonizers who neither speak our languages nor give birth to our descendants. It is utter nonsense to continue with any colonial formation anywhere in Africa. It is an insult on all of us as individuals and as a collective.
We must follow the research and seek the Orange 🍊 Union earnestly with a sense of urgency in fact. We need to stop all political wilderness and gimmicks.
©2023 Dr Eke.
The Five Mandatory Basic Criteria for Governance
A good government is one that achieves excellence beyond the usual expectations of the people. Subsequently a bad government is one that fails to achieve its promise but at least achieved the mandatory basic criteria for governance to be even deemed a government.
Many people assume that government is any set of persons or personalities who claim to be a “government.” This is clearly not the case as sometimes a government does not even exist.
There are specific basic criteria that confirm the existence of a government whether bad or good but at least a government exists when these basic criteria are clearly all evident. Government is not a theory and it is not a title but a duty in itself. Government is not an idea or a claim but a set of persons or personalities who fulfill the mandatory basic criteria for governance. There are other criteria for societal development which can be facilitated by a government to various degrees but for a government to even exist it must have fulfilled all five mandatory basic criteria for governance. In the absence of any of the five criteria, there is an absence of government. Those who are not aware of this duty must never be involved in any governance structure or instruments.
A government must ensure the availability of drinking water for the entire population on a daily basis with a secured planning project that maintains and sustains the provision of enough drinking water which must be easily affordable to the entire population.
There must be an organized approach to ensuring that the entire population can access daily feeding whether subsidized or not. The food production must be supported and promoted by government programs in a robust manner. The role of stakeholders must be encouraged and monitored to include foresight and reasonable forecast of potential food production. Food must be easily affordable to the entire population.
A security network that ensures protection of person and property must be guaranteed to function without impediments of any sort. Every person and property must have the assurance that the security network has regular standard surveillance and communication which adequately covers the entire map of the polity. A non-intrusive but proactive security system with very low threshold for direct engagement with the citizens and residents to allow passive and active flow of information as detailed as necessary to stay steps ahead of potential criminality is mandatory. This security network is fully equipped and heavily backed by the concerted efforts of all government agencies and all key stakeholders in the community. All security centres must have locally sourced personnel to ensure good communication, monitoring and transparency in the public view.
HEALTH & SAFETY
The public health and safety boards must have adequate knowledge of the local peculiarities and have a dedicated team for risk assessment of potential aberrations within the community. A robust communication method that dialogues with the community at all the various levels must be in place. Regular checks and audits of successful performance must be conducted annually and public awareness programs must be overtly conducted monthly throughout the length and breadth of the polity to ensure identification of loopholes and unsafe activities. An equitably sustainable healthcare system that ensures the direct responsibility and active participation of both service users and service providers must be in place.
A TRANSPARENT JUDICIARY
The issue of a constitution derived via the overwhelming consensus of the public as it traverses their ancestry, history, culture, identity, security, territorial peculiarity, language and most ideal foreseeable posterity goes without saying to be the foundation of a locally functional judiciary. The best interest of the polity will vary from culture to culture as well as from nation to nation. It cannot be assumed that all cultures are the same nor should it be assumed that every language expresses the same sentiments. A constitution must reflect not only the safety and stability of the local polity but it reflects the unique understanding and compliance of the citizens as a means of promoting their heritage in the most humanely possible way. The judiciary as a custodian of rules which preserve the integrity of persons, property and the polity must be predictable based on outlined orders in place which reflects its transparent nature. This impartial structure is a powerful reminder of all that has been agreed beyond the shadows of doubt for the peace of mind of the community. It motivates compliance by its assessment of whatever cases stationed within it forecourts.
It is worth noting that the above five mandatory basic criteria for governance are not about excellence or performance but about the absence or existence of a government. There are many other criteria for performance and excellence which may include educational systems, housing, energy efficiency, effective transportation systems, adequate labour and employment management, durable economic development strategies, satisfactory sports and leisure arrangements, robust foreign affairs policy, decent wildlife management, equitable resource management etc.
In conclusion, where any one of the five mandatory basic criteria for governance is amiss, you definitely have no government regardless of what any politician or deity tells you.
©2020 Dr Eke.